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Believe it or not, evidenced based physical therapy is a relatively new thing. It was the buzz word when I went to physical therapy school and now its common practice but just 15 years ago, there was no such thing. Crazy right? Now is a time of transition. There are medical professionals that haven’t kept up with new research and there are new graduates that may not have the years of experience under their belt but they have more book knowledge than even the previous graduating year. Due to this disparity, the quality of care in every profession can widely vary. More than ever, people need to be their own advocate and be educated so that they can get the care they need. The problem is that Dr. Google can tell you anything whether its true or not. My aim is to provide a place that contains easy to access, up to date, valid research. I’m going to start by compiling an extensive list of reliable websites and research articles but hope to create my own reviews of the research with conclusions and summaries that are nothing but research based.

Blog Topics


  • Bowel Health & Dysfunction
  • General Medical & Health
  • Orthopedic Physical Therapy
  • Physical Therapy
  • Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
  • Pelvic Pain
  • Urinary Health & Dysfunction
  • Women’s Health Issues

Research Articles 

Fecal Incontinence in Adults

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., … & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240.

Bharucha, A. E., Zinsmeister, A. R., Schleck, C. D., & Melton, L. J. (2010). Bowel disturbances are the most important risk factors for late onset fecal incontinence: a population-based case-control study in women. Gastroenterology139(5), 1559-1566. Full text.

Bharucha, A. E., Daube, J., Litchy, W., Traue, J., Edge, J., Enck, P., & Zinsmeister, A. R. (2012). Anal sphincteric neurogenic injury in asymptomatic nulliparous women and fecal incontinence. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology303(2), G256-G262. Full Text.

Bharucha, A. E., Fletcher, J. G., Melton, L. J., & Zinsmeister, A. R. (2012). Obstetric Trauma, Pelvic Floor Injury and Fecal Incontinence: A Population-Based Case–Control Study. The American journal of gastroenterology107(6), 902-911. Full Text.

Bischoff, A., Levitt, M. A., Bauer, C., Jackson, L., Holder, M., & Peña, A. (2009). Treatment of fecal incontinence with a comprehensive bowel management program. Journal of pediatric surgery44(6), 1278-1284. Full Text.

Bliss, D. Z., Savik, K., Jung, H. J. G., Whitebird, R., & Lowry, A. (2011). Symptoms associated with dietary fiber supplementation over time in individuals with fecal incontinence. Nursing research60(3 Suppl), S58. Full Text.

Bols, E., Hendriks, E., de Bie, R., Baeten, C., & Berghmans, B. (2012). Predictors of a favorable outcome of physiotherapy in fecal incontinence: Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Neurourology and Urodynamics,31(7), 1156-1160. Abstract.

Burgers, R., Reitsma, J. B., Bongers, M. E., de Lorijn, F., & Benninga, M. A. (2012). Functional Nonretentive Fecal Incontinence: Do Enemas Help?. The Journal of pediatricsAbstract.

Chiarioni, G., Palsson, O. S., Asteria, C. R., & Whitehead, W. E. (2013). Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: An effective surgical intervention.World J Gastroenterol19(41), 7048-7054. Full text.

Dodi, G., Jongen, J., de la Portilla, F., Raval, M., Altomare, D. F., & Lehur, P. A. (2010). An open-label, noncomparative, multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and safety of NASHA/Dx gel as a bulking agent for the treatment of fecal incontinence. Gastroenterology research and practice2010Full Text.

Halland, M., Koloski, N. A., Jones, M., Byles, J., Chiarelli, P., Forder, P., & Talley, N. J. (2013). Prevalence correlates and impact of fecal incontinence among older women. Diseases of the colon and rectum56(9), 1080-1086. Abstract.

Hong, K. D., Dasilva, G., Kalaskar, S. N., Chong, Y., & Wexner, S. D. (2013). Long-Term Outcomes of Artificial Bowel Sphincter for Fecal Incontinence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Surgeons217(4), 718-725. Abstract.

Lewicky-Gaupp, C., Brincat, C., Yousuf, A., Patel, D. A., Delancey, J. O., & Fenner, D. E. (2010). Fecal incontinence in older women: are levator ani defects a factor?. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology202(5), 491-e1. Full Text.

Markland, A. D., Richter, H. E., Burgio, K. L., Myers, D. L., Hernandez, A. L., & Subak, L. L. (2011). Weight loss improves fecal incontinence severity in overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. International urogynecology journal22(9), 1151-1157. Full Text.

Markland, A. D., Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., Redden, D. T., Richter, H. E., Sawyer, P., & Allman, R. M. (2010). Incidence and Risk Factors for Fecal Incontinence in Black and White Older Adults: A Population?Based Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society58(7), 1341-1346. Full Text

Markland, A. D., Greer, W. J., Vogt, A., Redden, D. T., Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., & Richter, H. E. (2010). Factors impacting quality of life in women with fecal incontinence. Diseases of the colon and rectum53(8), 1148. Full Text.

Norton, C., & Kamm, M. A. (2001). Anal sphincter biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for faecal incontinence in adults—a systematic review. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 15(8), 1147-1154. Full Text.

Rao, S. S. (2010). Advances in diagnostic assessment of fecal incontinence and dyssynergic defecation. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology8(11), 910-919. Full article.

Rey, E., Choung, R. S., Schleck, C. D., Zinsmeister, A. R., Locke, G. R., & Talley, N. J. (2009). Onset and risk factors for fecal incontinence in a US community. The American journal of gastroenterology105(2), 412-419. Full Text.

Saga, S., Vinsnes, A. G., Mørkved, S., Norton, C., & Seim, A. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC geriatrics13(1), 1-10. Full text. 

Shah, B. J., Chokhavatia, S., & Rose, S. (2012). Fecal Incontinence in the Elderly: FAQ. The American journal of gastroenterologyFull Text.

Soerensen, M. M., Buntzen, S., Bek, K. M., & Laurberg, S. (2013). Complete Obstetric Anal Sphincter Tear and Risk of Long-term Fecal Incontinence: A Cohort Study. Diseases of the colon and rectum56(8), 992-1001. Abstract.

Townsend, M. K., Matthews, C. A., Whitehead, W. E., & Grodstein, F. (2012). Risk factors for fecal incontinence in older women. The American journal of gastroenterology108(1), 113-119. Full Text.

Whitehead, W. E., Borrud, L., Goode, P. S., Meikle, S., Mueller, E. R., Tuteja, A., … & Ye, W. (2009). Fecal incontinence in US adults: epidemiology and risk factors. Gastroenterology137(2), 512-517. Full Text.

Female Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Nygaard, I., Barber, M. D., Burgio, K. L., Kenton, K., Meikle, S., Schaffer, J., … & Brody, D. J. (2008). Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association300(11), 1311-1316. Full Text.

Rosier, P. F., De Ridder, D., Meijlink, J., Webb, R., Whitmore, K., & Drake, M. J. (2012). Developing evidence?based standards for diagnosis and management of lower urinary tract or pelvic floor dysfunction. Neurourology and Urodynamics31(5), 621-624. Full Text.

Female Urinary Incontinence

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., … & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full text.

Bø, K. (2004). Pelvic floor muscle training is effective in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, but how does it work?. International Urogynecology Journal, 15(2), 76-84. Full Text.

Bø, K., & Herbert, R. D. (2013). There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review. Journal of physiotherapy59(3), 159-168. Full Text.

Da Roza, T., de Araujo, M. P., Viana, R., Viana, S., Jorge, R. N., Bø, K., & Mascarenhas, T. (2012). Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence in young, nulliparous sport students: a pilot study. International urogynecology journal23(8), 1069-1073. Full Text.

Goode, P. S., Burgio, K. L., Locher, J. L., Roth, D. L., Umlauf, M. G., Richter, H. E., … & Lloyd, L. K. (2003). Effect of behavioral training with or without pelvic floor electrical stimulation on stress incontinence in women. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association290(3), 345-352. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., Bø, K., & Fjørtoft, T. (2002). Effect of adding biofeedback to pelvic floor muscle training to treat urodynamic stress incontinence. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 100(4), 730-739. Full Text.

Schierlitz, L., Dwyer, P. L., Rosamilia, A., Murray, C., Thomas, E., De Souza, A., & Hiscock, R. (2012). Three-year follow-up of tension-free vaginal tape compared with transobturator tape in women with stress urinary incontinence and intrinsic sphincter deficiency. Obstetrics & Gynecology119(2, Part 1), 321-327. Full Text.

Interstitial Cystitis

FitzGerald, M. P., Payne, C. K., Lukacz, E. S., Yang, C. C., Peters, K. M., Chai, T. C., … & Nyberg, L. M. (2012). Randomized multicenter clinical trial of myofascial physical therapy in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and pelvic floor tenderness. The Journal of urology187(6), 2113-2118. Full Text

Weiss, J. M. (2001). Pelvic floor myofascial trigger points: manual therapy for interstitial cystitis and the urgency-frequency syndrome. The Journal of urology, 166(6), 2226-2231. 
Full Text.

Pain Science

Kim HJ, Yang GS, Greenspan JD, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in experimental pain sensitivity: systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain. 2017;158(2):194–211. Article Summary in PubMed

Lefebvre JC, Jensen MP, Trant DA. The effects of manipulating worry and happiness on the experience of acute pain and worry about pain. Cognit Ther Res. 2017;41(5):787–798. Article Summary on Publisher Website.

López-de-Uralde-Villanueva I, Muñoz-García D, Gil-Martínez A, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of graded activity and graded exposure for chronic nonspecific low back pain. Pain Med. 2016;17(1):172–188. Free Article

Louw A, Zimney K, Puentedura EJ, Diener I. The efficacy of pain neuroscience education on musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review of the literature. Physiother Theory Pract. 2016;32(5):332–355. Article Summary in PubMed.

Khatib Y, Madan A, Naylor JM, Harris IA. Do psychological factors predict poor outcome in patients undergoing TKA? A systematic review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015;473(8):2630–2638. Free Article

O’Connor SR, Tully MA, Ryan B, et al. Walking exercise for chronic musculoskeletal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis [published correction in: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(6):1182]. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(4):724–734. Free Article

O’Sullivan K, Dankaerts W, O’Sullivan L, O’Sullivan PB. Cognitive functional therapy for disabling nonspecific chronic low back pain: multiple case-cohort study. Phys Ther. 2015;95(11):1478–1488. Free Article.

Voogt L, de Vries J, Meeus M, Struyf F, Meuffels D, Nijs J. Analgesic effects of manual therapy in patients with musculoskeletal pain: a systematic review. Man Ther. 2015;20(2):250–256. Article Summary in PubMed.

Moseley GL, Butler DS. Fifteen years of explaining pain: the past, present, and future. J Pain. 2015;16(9):807–813. Article Summary in PubMed.

Carroll LJ, Ferrari R, Cassidy JD, Côté P. Coping and recovery in whiplash-associated disorders: early use of passive coping strategies is associated with slower recovery of neck pain and pain-related disability. Clin J Pain. 2014;30(1):1–8. Article Summary in PubMed

Fuentes J, Armijo-Olivo S, Funabashi M, et al. Enhanced therapeutic alliance modulates pain intensity and muscle pain sensitivity in patients with chronic low back pain: an experimental controlled study. Phys Ther. 2014;94(4):477–489. Free Article

Martini M, Pérez Marcos D, Sanchez-Vives MV. What color is my arm? Changes in skin color of an embodied virtual arm modulates pain threshold. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013;7:438. Free Article

Racine M, Tousignant-Laflamme Y, Kloda LA, Dion D, Dupuis G, Choinière M. A systematic literature review of 10 years of research on sex/gender and experimental pain perception; part 1: are there really differences between women and men? Pain.2012;153(3):602–618. Article Summary in PubMed.

Louw A, Diener I, Butler DS, Puentedura EJ. The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011;92(12):2041–2056. Article Summary in PubMed

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., … & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full Text.

Faubion, S. S., Shuster, L. T., & Bharucha, A. E. (2012, February). Recognition and management of nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 187-193). Elsevier. Full Text

Heilbrun, M. E., Nygaard, I. E., Lockhart, M. E., Richter, H. E., Brown, M. B., Kenton, K. S., … & Delancey, J. O. (2010). Correlation between levator ani muscle injuries on MRI and fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence in primiparous women. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology202(5), 488-e1. Full Text.

Schnelle, J. F., Leung, F. W., Rao, S. S., Beuscher, L., Keeler, E., Clift, J. W., & Simmons, S. (2010). A controlled trial of an intervention to improve urinary and fecal incontinence and constipation. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society58(8), 1504-1511. Full Text.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Relaxation

Abrams, P., Andersson, K. E., Birder, L., Brubaker, L., Cardozo, L., Chapple, C., … & Wyndaele, J. J. (2010). Fourth International Consultation on Incontinence Recommendations of the International Scientific Committee: Evaluation and treatment of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. Neurourology and urodynamics29(1), 213-240. Full text.

Dietz, H. P., & Simpson, J. M. (2008). Levator trauma is associated with pelvic organ prolapse. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology115(8), 979-984. Full Text.

Zeleke, B. M., Ayele, T. A., Woldetsadik, M. A., Bisetegn, T. A., & Adane, A. A. (2013). Depression among women with obstetric fistula, and pelvic organ prolapse in northwest Ethiopia. BMC psychiatry13(1), 1-5. Full Text.

Pelvic Pain

Hunter, C., Davé, N., Diwan, S., & Deer, T. (2013). Neuromodulation of pelvic visceral pain: review of the literature and case series of potential novel targets for treatment. Pain Practice13(1), 3-17. Full Text.

Vahdatpour, B., Alizadeh, F., Moayednia, A., Emadi, M., Khorami, M. H., & Haghdani, S. (2013). Efficacy of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.ISRN urology2013Full Text.

Peripartum and Childbirth-related Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Åhlund, S., Nordgren, B., Wilander, E. L., Wiklund, I., & Fridén, C. (2013). Is home?based pelvic floor muscle training effective in treatment of urinary incontinence after birth in primiparous women? A randomized controlled trial.Acta obstetricia et gynecologica ScandinavicaAbstract.

Bols, E. M., Hendriks, E. J., Berghmans, B., Baeten, C. G., Nijhuis, J. G., & De Bie, R. A. (2010). A systematic review of etiological factors for postpartum fecal incontinence. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica89(3), 302-314. Full Text.

Da Roza, T., de Araujo, M. P., Viana, R., Viana, S., Jorge, R. N., Bø, K., & Mascarenhas, T. (2012). Pelvic floor muscle training to improve urinary incontinence in young, nulliparous sport students: a pilot study. International urogynecology journal23(8), 1069-1073. Full Text.

Dietz, H. P. (2006). Pelvic floor trauma following vaginal delivery. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology18(5), 528-537. Full Text.

Lukacz, E. S., Lawrence, J. M., Contreras, R., Nager, C. W., & Luber, K. M. (2006). Parity, mode of delivery, and pelvic floor disorders. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 107(6), 1253-1260. Full Text.

MacLennan, A. H., Taylor, A. W., Wilson, D. H., & Wilson, D. (2000). The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and their relationship to gender, age, parity and mode of delivery. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology107(12), 1460-1470. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., Bø, K., Schei, B., & Salvesen, K. Å. (2003). Pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy to prevent urinary incontinence: a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 101(2), 313-319. Full Text.

Mørkved, S., & Bø, K. (2000). Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a one?year follow up. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 107(8), 1022-1028. Full Text.

Reilly, E. T. C., Freeman, R. M., Waterfield, M. R., Waterfield, A. E., Steggles, P., & Pedlar, F. (2002). Prevention of postpartum stress incontinence in primigravidae with increased bladder neck mobility: a randomised controlled trial of antenatal pelvic floor exercises. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology109(1), 68-76. Full Text.

Rømmen, K., Schei, B., Rydning, A., Daltveit, A. K., Sultan, A., & Mørkved, S. (2012). Prevalence of fecal incontinence after vaginal deliveries versus caesarean sections. Neurourol Urodyn31, 767. Abstract.

Salvesen, K. Å., & Mørkved, S. (2004). Randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. BMJ: British Medical Journal329(7462), 378. Full Text.

Stafne, S. N., Salvesen, K. Å., Romundstad, P. R., Torjusen, I. H., & Mørkved, S. (2012). Does regular exercise including pelvic floor muscle training prevent urinary and anal incontinence during pregnancy? A randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology,119(10), 1270-1280. Abstract.

Looking Ahead to 2019

I personally pooh-pooh new years resolutions simply because mine never stick. I do however, love the start of a new year. It inherently makes me look at where I have come, where I am and where I am going. It’s a time to reflect on what was awesome about the past year and what might need some work.

The past year has been all about keeping a baby alive while knowing nothing about how to do so. The good news is that baby is alive! But along the way, a bit of self was lost. This year I’m turning my attention (or at least some of it) back toward my needs, wants, desires and wishes. I mean after all, happy mom = happy baby right?

As with most everyone, there are many facets to my happiness but the relevant one to this particular space is my work happiness. I am particularly excited about 2019 when it comes to my professional growth, continued education and contribution to community. Here is what is currently in the works for the upcoming year:

  • Bloggity Blog
  • More YouTube Videos
  • Evidence Based Educational Handouts
  • BirthFit Professional Seminar Feb 9-10th
  • Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice (as soon as they offer another online cohort)
  • Monthly Nerd Nights with fellow Pelvic PTs (and hopefully a separate one for ortho!)

Anything else you would like to see on the list? Contact me here!

Why Now?

I need to answer this question maybe more for myself than for anyone else. I’ve owned my own business since 2015 and it’s going better than I could have ever asked for. I have the best patients. I get to see as many people as I want for as long as I want doing whatever I believe is best for them. That sentence right there is the reason I went on my own in the first place. Mission accomplished. So why build a website?

I’ve sat with this question many times over the past 3 months. Each night I’m up until midnight working away on something that doesn’t directly give back to me, I wonder why? Especially when my 1 year old daughter is likely going to wake up at 2am to feed. Really Jenny? This is the time you decide to build a website and create a blog? Really?

This isn’t the first time I have pulled something like this. I tend to over-do, over-achieve, and over-extend. As I’ve grown older and wiser, I have worked on containing this tendency to try to avoid burn-out and maintain sanity. So each time I want to add to my plate, I have to ask why and I have to have a really good answer.

I started working on the website long before I had the answer. Whoops! I couldn’t explain why but the pull was so strong, I just went with it. Now that the website is more or less complete and I am officially on my first blog post, it’s become quite clear, I need this. As a physical therapist working alone I miss out on the sharing of information and techniques with coworkers. I am self driven and love to learn so I seek out continuing education courses every year but its not the same. I don’t get to discuss new research articles or share clinical gems with anyone. But now I do! Sure, virtual sharing will not be the same but it will help me learn, grow and never get bored. Thats good enough for me!

Ok so reason number one: I’m doing this for me. But there is a very big reason number two. With today’s healthcare system, individuals need to be their own advocates more than ever and in order to do so, they need to be educated. Dr. Google can be overwhelming. There is so much information out there and its hard to know what is valid and reliable. There are also gaps in information. Becoming a pelvic physical therapist and having a baby myself, has highlighted the latter. For the first time in my professional career, I am more invested in educating individuals than treating them myself. Sure, I think I do a pretty good job treating people, but it’s become more important to me that they have good information, know their options and get what they need where ever that may be.

Its feels good to do something that is just as much for me as it is for others. I am excited to see where this blog takes me as a professional and I am thrilled at the opportunity to reach and educate as many people as possible.